Brain development continues beyond the first five years of life and into the school years. During this time, the brain undergoes further changes and development that support the acquisition of new skills and knowledge.
One of the key changes that occur during the school years is continued growth and refinement of neural connections and networks.
The brain's prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for executive functions such as planning, decision-making, and self-control, continues to develop and mature during this period. This development supports children's ability to regulate their behavior, pay attention, and think critically.
Another important aspect of brain development during the school years is the development of language skills.
As children learn to read and write, areas of the brain responsible for processing written language become increasingly specialised. In addition, children continue to develop their verbal communication skills and expand their vocabulary and grammar.
Social and emotional development also continues during the school years.
Children become more skilled at recognizing and regulating their emotions, understanding the perspectives of others, and building positive relationships. This development is supported by the continued growth and maturation of areas of the brain responsible for social and emotional processing.
Caregivers can support brain development in primary school children in several ways. Here are some key strategies:
Encourage learning: Encouraging children to explore new concepts and ideas, and to ask questions, can help to build neural connections and support cognitive development. Caregivers can support this by providing children with access to books, educational materials, and opportunities to engage in hands-on learning activities.
Foster positive social relationships: Positive social relationships are critical for healthy brain development in children. Caregivers can support this by encouraging children to participate in social activities and helping them to develop positive relationships with peers and adults.
Provide opportunities for physical activity: Physical activity supports healthy brain development by promoting the growth of new neural connections and enhancing cognitive functioning. Caregivers can support this by providing children with opportunities for physical activity, such as sports, outdoor play, and active games.
Encourage sleep and healthy eating: Adequate sleep and a healthy diet are critical for healthy brain development. Caregivers can support this by ensuring that children get enough sleep and providing them with nutritious meals and snacks.
Limit screen time: Excessive screen time can have a negative impact on brain development in children. Caregivers can support healthy brain development by limiting screen time and encouraging other forms of entertainment and engagement.
Support emotional regulation: Emotional regulation is a critical aspect of healthy brain development in children. Caregivers can support this by helping children to identify and regulate their emotions, and providing them with a safe and supportive environment in which to do so.
Collaborate with educators: Caregivers can work with educators to support their child's learning and development. This may involve attending parent-teacher conferences, communicating regularly with teachers, and providing support and resources to help children succeed in school.
Overall, the school years are a period of continued growth and development for the brain. The experiences children have during this time, such as exposure to new ideas and concepts, opportunities to practice and apply new skills, and positive social interactions, can have a significant impact on their brain development and future academic, social, and emotional success.